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Projected Renewables Contribution to World Electricity Generation

 

The US Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the acknowledged statistical authority on world energy. The EIA estimates that renewables presently provide about 20% of world electricity consumption and projects a very significant 66% growth in renewables over the next 20 years.

At the same time rapidly rising electricity demand in the developing world (particularly China and India) is expected to require continuing growth across all energy sectors. Because of the expected rise in total electricity consumption, this translates to a relatively small increase in renewable energy’s global share. The renewables proportion of the total is expected to rise by just 1% to around 21% by 2030.

 

Hydro-electricity presently contributes the vast proportion (88%) of renewable energy worldwide. In the non-OECD countries, hydroelectric power is expected to be the predominant source of renewable energy growth. Strong growth in hydroelectric generation, primarily from mid to large-scale power plants, is expected in China, India, Brazil, and a number of nations in Southeast Asia, including Vietnam and Laos.

 

Wind the next greatest contributor, currently contributes less than 8% of the world’s renewable energy budget. But the unexploited wind resource worldwide is still vast. As a result wind generation is growing at rate in excess of 25% pa worldwide. The most substantial additions of electricity supply generated from wind power are projected in China.

 

The limitations on the greater utilisation of wind are economic (cost) and technical (particularly intermittency and distance to market). These limit the exploitable resource to a fraction of the total and are expected to gradually slow annual growth in wind to around 10% pa by 2030. Nevertheless this represents a tripling of wind generation over the next 20 years. On balance, wind is expected to contribute about 4% of the world’s total electricity in 20 years.

 

The contribution of gas is projected to grow by 63% and coal by 57% over the next 20 years. Hydro-generation is expected to grow by 41% and nuclear power is expected to grow by 39%. The only decline is expected to be small drop in the relative contribution made by liquid hydrocarbons (typically dieseline) due to expected increases in relative price.

 

 

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION – SELECTED COUNTRIES

Country

Electricity Consumption TWh

Fossil

%

Nuclear

%

Wind

%

Hydro

%

Biofuels Other

%

Cost‡

US$/kWh

Australia

227 [2006/7]

96.4

0

0.9

2.3

0.5

0.06 i

NSW

76.5[2007/8]

94.8

0

0.2

4.7

0.3

0.06 i

Denmark [12]

39.3 [2007]

82

0

18

0.1

0.1

0.38 r

France [13]

443.3 [2003]

9.2

74.5

0.05

16.2

0.05

0.06 i

Sweden

139 [2003]

0

46.4

0.7

43.6

9.3

n/a

Switzerland

58.2 [2005]

5

39

0.1

56

0.1

0.09 i

‡Source: International Energy Agency, Energy prices and taxes 2008[14]. i = industrial r = residential)

 


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Travel

Balkans

 

 

In September 2019 we left Turkey by air, to continue our trip north along the Adriatic, in the Balkans, to Austria, with a brief side trip to Bratislava in Slovakia. 

'The Balkans' is a geo-political construct named after the Balkan Peninsula between the Adriatic and the Black Sea.

According to most geographers the 'Balkans' encompasses the modern countries of Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Kosovo; Montenegro; North Macedonia; Serbia; and Slovenia. Some also include Romania. 

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Fiction, Recollections & News

Stace and Hall family histories

 

The following family history relates to my daughter Emily and her mother Brenda.  It was compiled by my niece Sara Stace, Emily’s first cousin, from family records that were principally collected by Corinne Stace, their Grandmother, but with many contributions from family members.  I have posted it here to ensure that all this work is not lost in some bottom draw.  This has been vindicated by a large number of interested readers worldwide.

The copyright for this article, including images, resides with Sara Stace. 

Thus in respect of this article only, the copyright statement on this website should be read substituting the words 'Sarah Stace' for the words 'website owner'.

Sara made the original document as a PDF and due to the conversion process some formatting differs from the original.  Further, some of the originally posted content has been withdrawn,  modified or corrected following requests and comments by family members.  

 

Richard

 

 


 

Stace and Hall family histories

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Opinions and Philosophy

Death

 

 

Death is one of the great themes of existence that interests almost everyone but about which many people avoid discussion.  It is also discussed in my essay to my children: The Meaning of Life on this website; written more than ten years ago; where I touch on personal issues not included below; such as risk taking and the option of suicide.

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